Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Baureihen 110, 139, 140 ("Einheitsloks")
The development of the so-called Einheitslokomotiven (= Standard electric locomotives) dates back to the 1950s, when the then German Federal Railways needed successors for their pre-war electric locomotives. The aim was to build different locomotive series for long-distance trains, local transport and heavy freight trains, but as many parts as possible should be interchangeable. A total of more than 1,500 locos were built. Meanwhile, almost all engines were withdrawn.
Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Class 152
The class 152 (manufacturer's name: ES64F) locos were built between 1996 and 2001 as the successor of the class 150. The locomotives are based on the "EuroSprinter" prototype by Siemens, but were only designed for a speed of 140 km/h, as they were exclusively intended for use in freight transport. There were 195 locomotives ordered, of which only 170 were built. As the locomotives were not approved for use in Austria, the order for the remaining 25 locomotives was converted into "Taurus"-type locos (class 182).
Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Siemens Taurus (182-183)
The Siemens ES64U2 or -U4 called "Taurus" is an electric locomotive series from the EuroSprinter loco family. It was developed in the end of the 1990s as a universal locomotive for the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB). In Germany, almost 100 engines were sold to private operators (mainly MRCE) and 25 to Deutsche Bahn (DB).
Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Bombardier Traxx (185-186)
At the end of the 1990s, the DB freight devision required replacements for hundreds of old electric locomotives, primarily for the so-called → Einheitslokomotiven (= Standard electric locomotives). Due to the increasing international activities a double-system locomotive class was demanded, which is also able to work under the 25 kV AC system. The first engines were delivered in the year 2000 and became a bestseller: more than 400 locos were built for the DB, and orders by many private operators followed, so that a total of more than 1,000 locomotives were sold.
Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Siemens ES64F4 (189)
The ES64F4 manufactured by Siemens is an electric freight locomotive with 6,400 kW power and a maximum speed of 140 km/h, in Germany denoted as class 189. The locos are equipped for all four electric systems commonly used in Europe (15 and 25 kV AC, 1.5 and 3 kV DC). The first engines of 100 ordered by DB and many more ordered by private operators were delivered in 2003.
Railways / Germany: Electric Locomotives / Siemens Vectron (193)
The "Vectron" is a locomotive family by Siemens. The locos are available in various versions for all voltage and train protection systems in Europe. The first locomotive was presented in 2010. It is the successor to Siemens' successful "Eurosprinter" family (ES64, e.g. the DB class 189 and the Taurus locos).
Railways / Germany: Diesel Locomotives / "Ludmilla" (232-234)
The diesel locomotives, which are unofficially called "Ludmilla", were imported by the GDR from Luhansk in the former Soviet Union (today Ukraine). The Deutsche Reichsbahn (German Reich Railways) named the more than 800 locos as class 130-132. After the German reunification and the founding of Deutsche Bahn AG, they were renamed into class 232-234.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Locomotives / Siemens Eurorunner ER20 (223)
Die "Eurorunner"-Lokfamilie ist eine Serie vierachsiger, dieselelektrischer Lokomotiven von Siemens. Sie wurde ursprünglich für die Österreichischen Bundesbahnen entwickelt, fand jedoch auch auch unter den deutschen Privatbahnen und Lokvermietern mehrere Käufer. Das erste Baujahr dieser Lokomotiven war 2002.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Locomotives / Bombardier Traxx DE (245)
Die dieselelektrischen Traxx-Lokomotiven des Herstellers Bombardier sind von den elektrischen Typen der Traxx-Familie (Baureihen 145, 146, 185-187) modular abgeleitet. Die erste Maschine wurde im Jahre 2006 vorgestellt. Die Deutsche Bahn setzt die ersten Loks seit 2014 ein, sie sollen langfristig die Baureihe 218 ersetzen.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / ICE 1 - ICE 2 (401/402)
The first generation of ICE (InterCityExpress) trains were the 60 trainsets of the ICE 1-type, which came into service in 1991. From 1997, the ICE 2 trains were put into service. These trainsets are very similar to the ICE 1 trains, but consist of two units which could be coupled or detached as needed.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / ICE 3 - ICE 4 (403-407, 412)
A completely new development compared to the → predecessor series ICE 1 and ICE 2 was the ICE 3, which has been in use since 2000 and no longer had powerheads. Instead, there are traction motors mounted under the coaches. The ICE 3 series 407, which have been in use since 2014 and are labelled as "Velaro D" by the manufacturer, are mainly characterized by a significantly modified front. The ICE 4 is in service since 2017, which is another completely new development to replace the ICE 1 and 2 in the medium term.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / ICE-T (411, 415)
The ICE-T are electric multiple units consisting of seven (class 411) or five cars (class 415). They have a comparatively low maximum speed of 230 km/h, as they are less intended for use on high-speed lines, but on upgraded regular rail tracks. Since these have more and narrower track curves than the high-speed lines, they were equipped with a tilting technique. The tilting of the car body by up to eight degrees allows an increased speed in curves. The first trainsets were inaugurated in 1999.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Class 420
The class 420 trainsets are electric multiple units formed of three cars for 'S-Bahn' commuter services. 480 units were built in eight series in the years 1969 to 1997. They were in operation in the suburban railway networks of Frankfurt am Main, Stuttgart, Munich and Rhine-Ruhr. In the meantime, most of the trainsets were replaced by new class 423 and 422 (Rhine-Ruhr) resp. 430 (Frankfurt, Stuttgart) vehicles.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Class 423
In the early 1990s, the development of a successor series for the S-Bahn trainsets of the → class 420 began. They were designed primarily for the Munich S-Bahn services, but are also in use on the S-Bahn networks in Stuttgart, Cologne, and around Frankfurt (Rhein-Main). The first trains were delivered in 1998. By 2007, a total of 462 trainsets had been built. After that, furter modified units were manufactured for the S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr as class 422 until 2010. The most striking change is the new front design with an enlarged crumple zone. The class 430, which has been built for the S-Bahn Stuttgart and Rhein-Main since 2012, is also based on the "423".
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Class 425, 426
The class 425 are a class of up to 160 km/h fast, four-car units built by a consortium of Siemens, Bombardier and DWA for commuter train services of Deutsche Bahn. The almost identically classes 426 (two-car units) and 424 for the Hannover S-Bahn services were derived from the 425 series. In the years 1999 to 2008, a total of 332 trainsets (of which 43 of the class 426 and 40 of the class 424) were built. Although the trains look very similar to the S-Bahn EMU's of the → class 423, they have only a small number of common features.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Stadler FLIRT (427-430)
The FLIRT electric multiple units are manufactured by the Swiss company Stadler Rail AG. The designation FLIRT is an acronym and means "Flinker, leichter, innovativer Regional-Triebzug" (= agile, light, innovative regional multiple unit). The first unit was introduced in 2004. Since then, more than 1,000 units were sold in two to eight-car units in numerous countries. The FLIRT 3, which was inaugurated in 2013, got a completely new front design in addition to numerous further technical developments.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Alstom Coradia Continental (440)
In the year 2000, Alstom presented a multiple commuter train unit called Lirex (Light Innovative Regional Express), which was exclusively equipped with independent single-wheel chassis. Based on the experience with this prototype, the "Coradia Nordic" trainsets for Sweden were developed, which were delivered from 2005 onwards and had "classic" Jacobs bogies instead of the single wheels. The "Coradia Continental" trains were adapted to the smaller Central European profile. The first of these units were delivered in 2008 for the regional trains network around Augsburg. Since then, the trainsets were ordered by several operators. The trains delivered from 2014 got a new, crash-optimized front.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Talent 2 (442)
The "Talent 2" is a multiple unit railcar manufactured by Bombardier. Although the name suggests it would be derivate of the Talent railcars (acronym for "Talbot leichter Nahverkehrs-Triebwagen" = Talbot light regional mutiple unit railcar), the Talent 2 vehicles are technically not related to those cars. The first unit of this class with a maximum speed of 160 km/h was presented in 2008, regarding its front end design it soon got the nickname "Hamsterbacke" (hamster cheek).
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / S-Bahn Hamburg (470-474)
The S-Bahn Hamburg is a suburban railway system operated by Deutsche Bahn. It uses direct current (1,200 Volts) supplied by a third rail, therefore the S-Bahn Hamburg is a closed system. As a result of this, the S-Bahn Hamburg has always required its own vehicle types since the DC system was inaugurated in 1941. At the end of 2007, the first dual-system trains were put into service, which enable the connection to the "normal" DB network with overhead wires.
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / S-Bahn Berlin (480-485)
The S-Bahn Berlin is operated by Deutsche Bahn. In deviation from the usual supply of electric rail cars in Germany by overhead wires using 15 kV AC, the Berlin S-Bahn runs with a voltage of 750 volts DC, which is collected from a lateral live rail. This system is normally used only in metro systems. The network of the S-Bahn Berlin is some 330 kilometres long. Some of the outer branches reach into the surrounding districts of Brandenburg.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Multiple Units / Classes 610, 611
The classes 610 to 612 are (resp. were) diesel multiple units constructed for fast regional services with a maximum speed of 160 km/h. The vehicles are equipped with tilting technology which allows a higher speed in track curves. The first German tilting technology trains were class 610 DMU's which were put into service in 1992. Only 20 exemplars were built, which were in operation in the region around Nuremberg. The railcars were withdrawn in 2014 after only 22 years in service. Since the operator DB preferred vehicles which were built exclusively in Germany (components of the class 610 were imported from Italy), the follow-up class 611 was developed by the German manufacturer ADtranz. Due to numerous technical problems with these cars, however, also only 50 units were built.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Multiple Units / Class 612
From the experiences with the unsuccessful railcars of the classes 610 and 611 the class 612 was developed by Adtranz in cooperation with Bombardier. 192 units were obtained by DB within the years 1998 to 2002. The 612-type vehicles are two-sectional diesel multiple units constructed for fast regional services with a maximum speed of 160 km/h. The cars are equipped with tilting technology, which allows a higher speed in track curves.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Multiple Units / Alstom Coradia LINT 54-81 (620/622)
Since 2011, the manufacturer Alstom is building "Coradia LINT" railcars with two bogies under each part of the car and a modified head design. They represent a further development of the LINT 27 / LINT 41-type railcars with Jacobs-type bogies, which were built since 1999. The two-part variant is referred to as LINT 54, the three-part variant as LINT 81 (the number indicates the length in metres). Pictures of the LINT predecessor series are available → here.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Multiple Units / Alstom Coradia LINT (640/648)
The "LINT" is a single or multiple unit articulated railcar, which was designed by the german manufacturer Linke-Hofmann-Busch (LHB) and built from 1999. Since 2011, a further developed version with two bogies under each part instead of Jacobs-type bogies and a modified head design is in production, photos of these vehicles called LINT 54 and 81 are available → here.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Multiple Units / Siemens Desiro (642)
The 'Desiro' vehicles are diesel multiple units built by Siemens. The brand name is derived from the word 'desire'. In Germany, only the two-car version is used by Deutsche Bahn as well as some private rail companies. The first units were introduced in 2000.
Railways / Germany: Diesel Multiple Units / Bombardier Talent (643/644)
The "Talent" DMU's were originally developed by the manufacturer Talbot, the name is a German acronym for Talbot leichter Nahverkehrstriebwagen (in English: Talbot light suburban motor-coach). The first trainsets were built in 1996 and because of their elegant appearance also called "regional ICE train". An electric variant is used in Austria and Hungary. DB has obtained the 442 series as an electrical variant from 2011, which is called "Talent 2", but technically represents a complete new development.
Public Transport / Germany / Erfurt
Erfurt, the capital the German federal state of Thuringia, has about 200,000 inhabitants. Its tram network has a system length of approx. 45 kilometres. Since most of the routes outside the inner city are running on segregated tracks, it is marketed as the 'Stadtbahn (= light rail) Erfurt'. The trams are operated by → EVAG (Erfurter Verkehrsbetriebe AG).