Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / Classes 423, 430
In the early 1990s, the development of a successor series for the S-Bahn trainsets of the → class 420 began. They were designed primarily for the Munich S-Bahn services, but are also in use on the S-Bahn networks in Stuttgart, Cologne, and around Frankfurt (Rhein-Main). The first trains were delivered in 1998. By 2007, a total of 462 trainsets had been built. After that, furter modified units were manufactured for the S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr as class 422 until 2010. The most striking change is the new front design with an enlarged crumple zone. The class 430, which has been built for the S-Bahn Stuttgart and Rhein-Main since 2012, is also based on the "423".
Railways / Germany: Electric Multiple Units / S-Bahn Hamburg (470-474, 490)
The S-Bahn Hamburg is a suburban railway system operated by Deutsche Bahn. It uses direct current (1,200 Volts) supplied by a third rail, therefore the S-Bahn Hamburg is a closed system. As a result of this, the S-Bahn Hamburg has always required its own vehicle types since the DC system was inaugurated in 1941. At the end of 2007, the first dual-system trains were put into service, which enable the connection to the "normal" DB network with overhead wires.
Public Transport / Germany / Ulm
The city of Ulm (approx. 125,000 inhabitants), located in Baden-Württemberg directly on the border with Bavaria, has two tram lines. Until 2009, Ulm had only one tram route with a length of 5 kilometres, which was repeatedly threatened to be closed until the length of line 1 was almost doubled (10.2 kilometres) in March 2009 by the extension from Donauhalle to Böfingen. With the completion of Line 2 at the end of 2018, the network has again almost been doubled - to more than 19 kilometres. The trams are operated by → SWU (Stadtwerke Ulm/Neu-Ulm).
Public Transport / Scandinavia / Göteborg (Gothenburg)
The city of Gothenburg is located in the west of Sweden and has about 600,000 inhabitants. It has the largest tram network in Scandinavia with a system length of about 80 km. Most of the lines are separated from the road traffic outside the city centre. Some of the routes have been built without any crossings, resulting in very attractive travel times. The network operator is → Göteborgs Spårvägar AB.